Using Noctilucent clouds to predict the weather in 1870,71,72 etc?

Copied from the “Australian Town and Country Journal” Saturday 14 February 1874.

http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/70472483

Mr Herbert Ingall contributes an interesting paper to the English Mechanic on the polarisation of haze, which shows how valuable minute observations on meteorological phenomena may become as indications of approaching changes in the weather. He says :— The most important result at which I have arrived, would appear as follows :-That hues of high auroral haze always appear polarised in the direction of a coming disturbance or falling barometer, radiating (as it were) From that spot. The first notice of a coming cyclonic disturbance is often given long before the barometer shows the least sign of falling (frequently while it is still rising from a previous fall), and this is in the appearance (often in a cloudless sky) of faint light gauzy streamers of very high haze, the elevation of which I have little doubt, far exceeds the ordinary clouds, even the cirri, and would appear intermediate between the cirri and the region of the auroral proper, to which I think they are more nearly related. These streamers appear to point out the formation or coining

of a cyclonic or other electric disturbance. The line of polar matter may frequently dissolve and break up without any notable change at the place of observa- tion, as in the case of the disturbance passing off in another direction, and away from the observer. A beautiful instance of this I noticed in London at midnight of October 23rd, 1872, when great bands of haze crossed the sky from W.N.W. to E.S.E., and a sudden decrease of barometrical pressure bringing a heavy S.W.gale, skirted along the N.W. coasts of Scotland, but without causing any marked change at the place of observation. A line instance of persis- tent polarisation of haze and cirri occurred on Septem- ber 11 and 12, 1873 as follows :— September 11, fine morning, light westerly airs, cirri in all shapes, and polar lines of haze streaming from S.W. all day, and exhibiting lunar halo at night. Septem- ber 12, fine morning, light airs, sky almost covered with a gigantic homogeneous broad hand of auroral haze from the S.W. to N.E.. terminating abruptly 10 deg. above the N.W. horizon, where the clear blue sky was seen. The sun exhibited a coloured parhelia in this haze. The barometer had not yet shown any sign of falling even this evening, and only commenced slowly to fall on the 13th, on which morning the true wind of the coming disturbance showed itself com- mencing E.N.E. and veering to S.S.E. This distur- bance proved to be a peculiar large barometrical depression, barring two minima, and crossed England to Denmark, bringing heavy rains and thunder. An interesting feature in these streamers of haze is their occasional luminosity, in which condition they would seem analogous to to true aurora, bnt from which they differ in many respects. They are usually of a very palo-bluish luminosity, not unlike the Milky Way. although scarely so bright, resembling more the palo homogenous glow of the diffused auroral light very frequently seen in the north western horizon, and their transparency is often such as not in the least to interfere with the brilliancy of the stars. These pale streamers are often permanent for a consid- erable time, very different from the sudden and evan- escent brilliancy of the true auroral streamer. They are nevertheless often slowly drifted along by what appears to be high upper currents ofthe atmosphere ; however tho streamers of thc true aurora sometimes drift along in this manner, an instance of which I par- ticularly noted on September 7th, 1871, at 8h., the auroral phenomena consisting simply of pale perpendi- cular streamers from the N.N. W. horizon drifting along from west to east. The following is an instance of luminous streamers almost permanent, as indicating

it coming change, and from this it appears that, the height and permanence of these appearances would in some degree denote the magnitude or intensity of the distant disturbance, as the higher and more filmy the streamers, the more gradual and lasting the change ; but this however, requires further study. January 26, 1873.—-Clear at night. Sky crossed from S. to W. with pale transparent luminous streamers of very light haze, which remained almost stationary. Baro- meter slowly rising. but falling in the South, therefore bringing N. E. winds and cold weather, which contin- ued all the week, and finally culminated in the cyclone of February 2nd, 1873. A curious and I think impor- tant phenomenon to be investigated is the apparent radiation of luminous streamers or lines of haze from distant thunderstorms. My attention was first drawn to this on August 18th, 1870, when after a very hot day (88 deg in shade) an exceedingly violent thunder- storm traversed the western and midland counties of England. The sky was very clear here, but from the distant storm, lines of faintly luminous haze of extreme tenuity appeared to radiate, and retained their position for a very considerable time. Of course thuso phenomena can only be observed with a very clear sky, as the least clouds or mistiness would at once veil from sight the delicate appearances. Again I noticed the same luminous streamer during the storms which traversed the various parts of the country on August 21th of the last year, and on this occasion noted what seems especially important, that their luminosity was more marked in proportion as the various storms from which they radiated intensified. The wild, fantastic forms of cirri often noticed as a forerunner of wind, or either very disturbed weather, would seem to be polarised haze altered by conflicting upper currents, the masses generally radiating, in a flame-like manner, from a given direction, although sometimes the complexity of the forms of cirri, bristling as it were, from each other, would with diffi- culty be explained in this way, the crystalline patterns being only comparable in beauty to the arborescent forms of frozen vapour on a window-pane. I shall not soon forgot the magnificent flaming cirri of June 27th and 28th, 1873 (especially on the latter day), which proceeded the extraordinary weather of June 29th and 30th, 1873.

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The Australian climate refugee trains of 1896.

“trains have been specially provided”

The Heat Wave in Australia.
NEARLY 200 DEATHS FROM HEAT APOPLEXY.
ITS SEVERITY IN NEW SOUTH WALES.
BUSINESS SERIOUSLY INTERFERED WITH. PEOPLE LEAVING BOURKE.
(From Exchanges.)
The long continuance of the unprecedented heat wave in New South Wales is proving a very serious matter to the residents in some of the districts, especially in the western portion of the colony. Over 125 deaths from heat apoplexy have occurred In New South Wales, and to this number Bourke has already contributed 40. The matter has become so serious that the railway authorities have commenced running trains at special cheap fares, to enable the residents to seek a cooler climate, and a great number are Availing themselves of the opportunity. In many parts, to add to the difficulties of situation, the water supply is running short and typhoid fever and kindred diseases are very prevalent. The hospitals are all full of patients, suffering either from fever or sun-stroke. To farmers and graziers the continued heat is proving very serious, the feed being withered up, tanks dry, and horses, sheep, and cattle dying by hundreds, and many settler’s homes have been destroyed by the bush fires. Never in the history of New South Wales has such a continuance of fierce heat been known.
From West Australia also come reports of intense heat, Geraldton topping the record with 125 degrees in the shade.
The telegrams from various places include the following: —
BREWARINNA, January 18.— A pleasant breeze sprang up last evening, which was refreshing after the excessive heat of the day. Considerable sickness prevails here, and another death from heat apoplexy has occurred at Maylands, on the Culgoa River. The thermometer registered 116deg. in the shade today.
BOURKE, January 18.— The glass was at 116 today. The continuous heat is causing much sickness and fatality. Three more deaths are reported today, the victims being Michael Coleman, drover; Mrs Kermod, widow; John Matthews, woolpresser. The total number of deaths since last Sunday morning is 25. Many women and children are leaving Bourke for Sydney and the mountains daily.
BOURKE, Jan 21.— Two deaths are re- ported from heat apoplexy, bringing the record to 35. The average heat for the month to date has been 112 in the shade, and for the past four days 118. A large number of people left Bourke by train this morning, and cheap excursion trains have been specially provided, and will be largely patronised to-morrow. The residents are paute-stricken, and hundreds are leaving for a cooler climate.
WlLCANNIA, January 18.— Yesterday the heat was again intense, the thermometer registering 112, while today it reached 118. Two deaths occurred during the night, one being a child and the other the Rev Father Davern who expired shortly before 2 o’clock this morning. The rev. gentleman had been in delicate health for some time, and was to have left for Brokenhill yesterday for a two months’ vacation, but postponed his departure owing to the oppressive weather. He became worse during the after noon, and lost consciousness at 11 o’clock last night. Father Davern has been a resident of Willcannla for eight years. He was universally respected, his acts of charity having extended to members of all denominations. Reports have been received from the town and district of many cases of illness. The glass is now standing at over 100deg. without any prospect of a change.
WILCANNIA, JAN. 19.— Three more deaths have occurred here from the heat, Mesdames Hedger, Edmond, and White succumbing to the extremely high temperature.
CARRATHOOL, January 20, —The weather is again extremely hot, the thermometer yesterday recording 104 in the shade. To day, at 10 o’clock, 99 was recorded, at noon 109 and at 8 o’clock 115 with a scorching northerly wind, and dust. Tonight the weather is dull and oppressive, and a thunderstorm is threatening. At 8 o’clock the glass still showed 101.
HAY, January 18.—The weather continues to be the prevailing topic of conversation; today was the hottest of the season, the glass registering 113.5.
DENILIQUIN, January 13.—In consequence of the drought and scarcity of feed, the Riverina freezling works here will close down this week for several months, or, at any rate, until the drought breaks up. This will throw nearly 150 men out of employment. The weather today is very hot, the thermometer registering 108.
ST. MARYS, January 20.—After three days of cool weather, a change has come, and to- day was somewhat similar to last Monday. The thermometer stood at 109 in the shade, and at 7 p.m. was still over 100. One child has died through the effects of the heat. Today, a number of the employees at the different factories were prostrated. The want of, a permanent supply of water is badly felt, and the outlook is serious.
BULLI, January 20.—A woman has been brought to the Bulli Hospital in a demented condition, suffering from sunstroke. She was tramping the roads, with her husband, two days before, when she was prostrated by a sunstroke. Her husband carried her through all the sweltering heat to Bulli, taking two days over the journey.
Telegrams from many other places have similar tales to tell of extreme heat. Nyngan reports 114deg. At Lithgow coal mining is seriously interfered with, the furnaces having been shut down owing to scarcity of water, throwing a lot of men out of employment. At Mudgee, Henry Lambert was sun struck, and the Cudgegon River and Lawson’s Creek have stopped running, Gilgunnia reports 112deg , with an Increase of sickness, one child dying, from the effects of the heat. Gruta reports. 110deg, ; many cattle and other stock perishing. At Singleton two men, G. Clarke and O. Solomon, were taken to the hospital supposed to be suffering from typhoid fever, but it turned out to be sunstroke. At Tamworth the maize is witting and turning yellow. Tenterfield, 106deg., grass and young crops withering. Windsor, 112deg. Lyndhurst, 110deg., .and water very, scarce. Murwillumbah reports 110deg. for five days. At
Nymagee, 114deg , the drinking water was condemned by doctors as being quite unfit to drink, and very conductive to hydatids.
SYDNEY, January 22.— At Bourke today the thermometer marked 120 in the shade. Almost all business places, except hotels, are closed. Heavy clouds are now hanging about, and there are hopes of rain. Two more deaths have taken place. Four deaths from heat occurred last week at Gundabooks. Many persons left Bourke by special excursion train this morning. The hospital is crowded with patients.
BRISBANE, January 22.— The weather has been exceedingly oppressive today, being the highest record for the summer. A high “shade” temperature prevails throughout the colony, the principal being Thargomindah and Cunnamulla, 113 ; Bolton, 112 ; Isisford, 110. Roma reports all crops withering. A Thargomindah telegram states that five more sudden deaths have occurred in the district, all attributed to heat.
Latest advices from Sydney, under Thurs- day’s date, report that a welcome change in the weather, accompanied by a fall of rain, has taken place New South Wales on the coast and highlands. In the far West it is still hot, while In the north thunderstorms of cyclonic violence are reported.
West Australian telegrams report :—
GERALDTON, January 19.— Weather very hot ; 125deg. in the shade yesterday. A great deal of sickness prevalent, and water scarce.
KALGOORLIE, January 19. — The heat on Friday was intense. Mr Z. Lane lost by sunstroke a pair of horses which he was driving to Coolgardie. At night a heavy duststorm, accompanied by lightning and rain, occurred.
The following items will show in some degree the sort of weather experienced in Perth lately. The Perth “Daily News” of a recent date says the decision of Messrs Stevens and Wilkinson to close the pantomime season for a few days on account of the hot weather was generally approved by playgoers. The same journal has the following:—”‘ The Mayor of Perth (Mr H. J. Saunders) is to be commended on the rapidity with which he gets through the business of the City Council. Last evening, at the monthly meeting, the heat was almost unbearable ; the thermometer in the room registering considerably over 100 degrees. Councillor George, however, does not consider that the dignity of a councillor should be upheld when the mercury is at boiling point, for before the meeting opened he divested himself of his coat and waistcoat, unstraped his braces, and delivered himself of oratorical utterances in his shirt sleeves. Before doing this he appealed to the. Mayor, who was taste- fully dressed in an Indian officer’s undress full evening costume, for permission to partially disrobe, and was given a hesitating, though diplomatic answer in the affirmative.”

From Wellington Times and Agricultural and Mining Gazette Saturday 25 January 1896

http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/64889112?zoomLevel=7

Further info on these trains and the 1896 heat:

EXCURSIONS TO COOL CLIMATES

http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/14034461?zoomLevel=6

THE EXCESSIVE HEAT AT BOURKE. FURTHER DEATHS. EXODUS OF RESIDENTS BY EXCURSION TRAINS.

http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/14034081?zoomLevel=7

HEATWAVE IN BREWARRINA

http://43albion.com/documents/ourdocs/brewarrina_heatwave.htm

A RUSH TO THE MOUNTAINS

http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/14034636?zoomLevel=6

PHENOMENAL HEAT. ELEVEN MORE DEATHS.

http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/39625144?zoomLevel=7

 

 

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Was the term “Climate change” first used by skeptics?

Long before CO2 could be blamed the debate was already underway. From more than 156 years ago…. 

“INTERESTING FACTS —The Scientific American says —” History informs us us that many of the countries of Europe which now possess very mild winters, at one time experienced severe cold during this season of the year. The Tiber, at Rome, was often frozen over, and snow at one time lay for forty days in that city. The Euxine Sea was frozen over every winter during the time of Ovid, and the rivers Rhine, and Rhone used to be frozen over so deep that the ice sustained loaded waggons. The waters of the Tiber Rhine, and Rhone now flow freely every winter ice is unkown in Rome, and the waves of the Euxine dash their winter foam uncrytalised upon the rocks. Some have ascribed these climate changes to agriculture—the, cutting down of forests, the exposure of the up-turned soiled to the summer’s sun, and the draining of great marshes. We do not believe that such great changes could be produced on the climate of any country by agriculture, and, we are certain that.no theory can account for the contrary change of climate — from cold to warm to cold winters –which history tells us take place in others countries than those named. Greenland received its name from emerald herbage which once clothed its valleys and mountains ; and the east coast, which is now inaccessable on account of perpetual ice heaped upon its shores, was in the eleventh century, the seat of flourishing Scandinavian colonies, all trace of which is now lost. Cold Labrador was named Vinland by the.northmen, who visited it A.D. 1000, and were charmed with its then mild climate. The cause of these changes is an important inquiry A pamphlet by John Murray, civil engineer , has recently been published in London in which he endeavours to attribute these changes of climate to the changeable position of the magnetic poles. “

Bold added

Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal Saturday 20 October 1855

http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/62049716

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